Adding Duo 2FA to Microsoft ADFS

KB ID 0001656


I did a Duo run through a few weeks ago, and to be honest their documentation is usually pretty good. I was spinning this up as a PoC for a client so I thought I’d put my take on the procedure here.

ADFS Duo Pre-Requisites

I already have a Duo Authentication Proxy server setup and my users are enrolled, you will need to set this up first. See the following article;

Duo: ADSync and Enroll Users via SMS

Log into the the Duo Admin Portal > Applications > Protect an Application > Search for and select Microsoft ADFS > Protect This Application.

 Copy the Integration Key, Secret Key and the API hostname to notepad.

ADFS Duo Secret Keys

Download the Duo AD FA MFA Adapter on your ‘first‘ ADFS server. Enter the information you copied to Notepad, (above). Tick ‘Bypass Duo Authentication when offline’, and because my users are logging on with their Office 365 UPNs, I’m also ticking ‘Use UPN username format’ (SEE USERNAME NORMALISATION NOTE BELOW.)

Note: I only have one ADFS server, if you have an ADFS Server farm you will need to install each one with the SAME shared session key, you can generate one of these yourself in PowerShell with the following commands;

$bytes = new-object "System.Byte[]" 30
(new-object System.Security.Cryptography.RNGCryptoServiceProvider).GetBytes($bytes)

I only have one, so I’ll simply ‘Generate new session key‘ > Finish the install wizard.

Duo ADFS Session Key

Note: If one has already been deployed, and you don’t know the key, go to the ADFS server on which it’s working, and look in the following registry key.


USERNAME NORMALISATION: Because I’m logging users on with UPNs ( Back in the Duo Portal under protected applications Microsoft ADFS > Set username normalisation to ‘None” > Scroll down and save the change.

Duo User Normalization UPN

Server 2019 Only: I’m deploying on Server 2019 so I also need to execute the following Powershell command, you will need to enter YOUR API Hostname (you copied above).

Set-AdfsResponseHeaders -SetHeaderName "Content-Security-Policy" -SetHeaderValue "default-src 'self' 'unsafe-inline' 'unsafe-eval'; img-src 'self'; frame-src"

Server 2019 Duo Reponde Header AD FS

Launch the ADFS Management Console > Authentication Methods > Additional Authentication Methods > Edit.

ADFS Enable or Disable Duo

Tick ‘Duo Authentication for AD FS {version}’ > Apply > OK.

Duo Authentication for AD FS

Relying Party Trust > Here I have my Office 365 trust, yours may be for something else! Edit Access Control Policy.

Duo ADFS Access Control Policy

Click ‘Use Access Control Policy’ > The one I want is ‘Permit Everyone and Require MFA for Specific Group‘. This way I can select who gets 2FA challenged, and I can migrate users slowly into this group once I know they are enrolled, (also I use the same group to Sync the users to Duo to make things simple). Change the <parameter> and locate you domain security group.

Duo ADFS Only Challenge User Group

Now when the users connect to ADFS, after they logon, they are challenged to provide 2FA authentication.

Protect ADFS With Duo 2FA

like so;

Duo Aprove Authentication

Related Articles, References, Credits, or External Links


Author: PeteLong

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  1. Thank you. I didn’t know about the additional PowerShell requirement for 2019. This article really helped me out. I just sent you a donation. Keep up the good work.

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    • Thanks David! Glad to help.

      Post a Reply

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