PeteNetLive https://www.petenetlive.com Technology that 'Just Works' Thu, 06 May 2021 18:30:46 +0000 en-GB hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.5.4 Cisco Catalyst 9200 / 9300 DNA Licensing https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/c0001750 https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/c0001750#respond Thu, 06 May 2021 18:30:46 +0000 https://www.petenetlive.com/?p=16697 KB ID 0001750 Problem I get asked this at least once a month, “What’s the score with this DNA Licensing?” It took long enough for everyone to get used to Lan Base, IP Base, and IP Services! The cynic in me would say, Cisco have learned from Meraki that selling subscription licences is much better […]

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KB ID 0001750

Problem

I get asked this at least once a month, “What’s the score with this DNA Licensing?” It took long enough for everyone to get used to Lan Base, IP Base, and IP Services!

Cisco 9000 Series DNA Licensing

The cynic in me would say, Cisco have learned from Meraki that selling subscription licences is much better than selling products that you don’t get any recurring revenue from. But I’ll try an give you the short answer so you can get the correct license. 

Solution: Buying Cisco Catalyst 9K Switches

Firstly: Not sure who decided that Cisco would release 9000 series Catalyst switches, when they had 9000 series Nexus switches? (Thanks for that!)

Catalyst 9200 or 9300?

As a rule of thumb 9200 series are typically used as access switches i.e. replacements for things like the Catalyst 2960, 2960-X, and 2960-XR). And the 9300 series are a replacement for things like Cisco Catalyst 3750G, 3750-X, and 3850.

Note: There’s also a Catalyst 9400 switch, which is a modular (line card) based chassis switch to replace the Catalyst 4500 and 6000 series.
Note2: There’s also a Catalyst 9500 switch that replaced the 10Gbps catalyst 3850 models (traditional 1U size).
Note3: There’s also a Catalyst 9600 switch which is modular (line card) based chassis switch to replace the Catalyst 6000 Series.
Note4: There’s also a Catalyst 9800 series which, just to confuse everyone further, is a range of wireless controllers?

Cisco 9000 Series Catalyst

So which switch to buy? Cisco keep adding models to both ranges so the first thing to do is decide 9200 or 9300, then look at the current Cisco Data Sheet for that range.

9200 Series Data Sheet

9300 Series Data Sheet

Then decide

  1. How many ports (access/downlink) do you need, and what speed/type do they need to be?
  2. Do you need PoE?
  3. What uplink ports do you need? (Some models have fixed (built in) uplinks, others need a network module (modular) uplink. Remember modular uplinks have their own part number (SKU), and will need to be ordered separately. (Note: 9200L and 9300L have fixed uplinks)
  4. Do you need additional (redundant) power supplies? 
  5. Do you need to ‘Stack’ your switches, if so don’t forget to get a stack cable (theres no separate stacking modules).

They were cheaper than you expected right?

That’s because now we need to add on a DNA licence as well.

DNA Licensing

Cisco DNA (Digital Network Architecture) is the name given collectively to a suite of products that are aimed towards being software driven, automated, with built in security.

There’s three types;

  • DNA Essentials: (Lan Base in old money) Basically Layer 2 functionality and static routing.
  • DNA Advantage:  (Combines IP Base and IP Services in old money) Basically full Layer 3 functionality, (and all the functionality of DNA Essentials).
  • DNA Premier: Combines all the functionality of DNA Essentials and DNA Advantage, and adds on ISE integration and Cisco Secure Network Analytics (formerly Stealthwatch) support.

Each licence comes in either a 3 Year, 5 Year, or 7 Year subscription model.

Example DNA Licensing SKU: C9200- DNA-E-24-3Y

C9200  – for a Cisco Catalyst 9200 series switch.

DNA – Digital Network Architecture licence.

E – Essentials (A would be advantage, and P would be premier).

24 – For a 24 port switch

3Y – 3 Year Subscription

Related Articles, References, Credits, or External Links

NA

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Exchange Stopped Working? https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001749 https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001749#comments Mon, 26 Apr 2021 18:17:51 +0000 https://www.petenetlive.com/?p=16672 KB ID 0001749 Problem I see various posts in online forums, and the process is held up because a lot of techs can’t do basic troubleshooting on their Exchange deployments. So I thought I’d put together some basic ‘first steps’ for you to do when your  ‘Exchange Stopped Working‘ This way you can at least […]

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KB ID 0001749

Problem

I see various posts in online forums, and the process is held up because a lot of techs can’t do basic troubleshooting on their Exchange deployments. So I thought I’d put together some basic ‘first steps’ for you to do when your  ‘Exchange Stopped Working

This way you can at least get an error code to search for or a better idea of what’s going on.

Exchange Stopped Working – First Steps

Well it is Microsoft, reboot it, (yes turn it off and turn it on again.) I myself have lost time troubleshooting a problem that would have been cured with a simple reboot!

Disk Space: Look at you drives, if you are low on space, databases will fail to mount and bad things will happen, If you’re not backing up and logs are not getting flushed, then drives will fill up. It takes two seconds to check.

Services:  Next culprit, look for all the Exchange services that are set to ‘Automatic‘ and manually start them (some may start and stop and that’s OK), but if you get an error, then screenshot that error, look in event viewer and get a copy of the error/warning then you are armed with good internet searching ammunition!

Exchange Troubleshooting Exchange Services

Use The Tool

For a long time, Microsoft have supplied a Remote Connectivity Analyzer. Run though the tests on here.

Exchange Connectivity Tester

Exchange Stopped Working – Are you Accepting SMTP?

The simplest test is to see if Exchange is actually providing main services (on TCP Port 25 (SMTP)). You can do this by (on the Exchange server).

telnet localhost 25

And you should get a response (see below). If that fails, then the usual culprit, (if all the services are running), is AV software blocking port 25.

Exchange Troubleshooting Telnet 25

Exchange Stopped Working  – Test Email from CLI (Telnet)

I consider this a basic Exchange Skill, (the ability to send an email from command line). You first need to Telnet to the server (as above) you can then send an email. WARNING if you make a mistake, or have a typo (even if you correct that typo, before hitting enter) it will error! If in doubt write all your commands in notepad and paste them in!

Commands to use;

ehlo {Enter}

This is an ‘Extended’ helo (yes that’s spelled correctly) it opens communications and the server should respond with a list of the services it offers.

Tech Note: Also a good way to see if TLS is supported (it should respond with 250-STARTTLS)

mail from: {email-address} {Enter}

This can be ‘any’ source email address, even one that does not exist.

rcpt to:{email-address} {Enter}

Needs to be an email address that this Exchange has a mailbox for (on a domain that it’s authoritative for).

data {Enter}

Then type some text, you can continue typing as much text as you like.

.{Enter}

That’s a full stop, (period for the US), followed by Enter.

Exchange Troubleshooting Send Test Email via Telnet

Then, (assuming it was successful and said 250 2.6.0 mail queued for delivery). If not you have an error code to Google. Check the mail was received.

Exchange Troubleshooting Send Test Email

Exchange Stopped Working – Test ‘Inbound’ Mail flow.

If you got this far then internally things are looking healthy, you need to see if you can accept mail from ‘Outside’. Repeat the test you carried out above but for a machine on the public internet, telnet in to the public DNS name of your Exchange and send an email via command line.

Exchange Troubleshooting Test Inbound

This proves your DNS is correct*, your firewall is setup correctly, and your Exchange is receiving mail. 

*Note: Assuming you connected to the DNS name, (if you connected to the public IP then your problem may be DNS!)

Exchange Stopped Working – Test ‘Outbound’ Mail flow.

This one is easy to troubleshoot, send an outbound mail.

Exchange Troubleshooting Test Outbound

Locate the Exchange Toolbox > Queue Viewer.

Exchange Troubleshooting Queue Viewer

Look for mail ‘stuck‘ on the outbound queue, in production there will probably be hundreds of them, but what you are looking for is an error message. In the example below that’s 451 4.4.397 (Which I forced to happen by blocking outbound traffic from the Exchange server on the firewall). If you see this make sure the Exchange has TCP port 25 open outbound. 

Exchange Queue Viewer Error

Now you have enough information to either get on the forums and search, or open a new question if your stuck (AND TRY SEARCHING THIS WEBSITE FOR THE ERROR (TOP RIGHT)). I’ve fixed a few!

Related Articles, References, Credits, or External Links

NA

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How Many Users in AD? (User Count) https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001748 https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001748#respond Fri, 16 Apr 2021 07:51:54 +0000 https://www.petenetlive.com/?p=16643 KB ID 0001748 Problem I had to get some stats from a number of customers earlier today, one of the stats I needed was the  user count from within their respective Active Directories. If you have a tedious job to do, there’s usually a PowerShell command to help! Getting Object Numbers From Active Directory User […]

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KB ID 0001748

Problem

I had to get some stats from a number of customers earlier today, one of the stats I needed was the  user count from within their respective Active Directories. If you have a tedious job to do, there’s usually a PowerShell command to help!

Getting Object Numbers From Active Directory

User Count

(Get-ADUser -Filter *).Count

Computer Count

(Get-ADComputer -Filter *).Count

Group Count

(Get-ADGroup -Filter *).Count

Get Active Directory User Count

Enabled or Disabled User Count

That’s all fine, but what if you needed to only see enabled or disabled users?

(Get-AdUser -filter ‘Enabled -eq $true’).count
(Get-AdUser -filter ‘Enabled -eq $false’).count

Group User Count

Or only users in a particular group?

(Get-ADGroup GS-VPN-Users -Properties *).Member.Count

OU User Count

Or only users in a particular OU?

(Get-ADUser -Filter * -SearchBase “OU=Users, OU=PNL,DC=pnl,DC=com”).Count

Get Active Directory Group or OU User Count

Related Articles, References, Credits, or External Links

NA

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Enable Remote Desktop (Remotely) https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001747 https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001747#respond Tue, 13 Apr 2021 19:45:13 +0000 https://www.petenetlive.com/?p=16632 KB ID 0001747 Problem Let’s say you want to RDP to a remote server (imagine such a thing!) But some doofus didn’t enable RDP? Well you can enable Remote Desktop via group policy and wait a while. I used to connect to the registry remotely and change the key that enabled RDP, but now you […]

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KB ID 0001747

Problem

Let’s say you want to RDP to a remote server (imagine such a thing!) But some doofus didn’t enable RDP? Well you can enable Remote Desktop via group policy and wait a while. I used to connect to the registry remotely and change the key that enabled RDP, but now you can do it with a simple PowerShell command. Not only will it enable Remote Desktop, it will also allow RDP on the Windows firewall (if enabled).

Enable Remote Desktop (Powershell)

First install the module, then execute the command;

Install-Module Enable-RemoteDesktop
Enable-RemoteDesktop -Target {Computer-name}

Enable Remote Desktop Remotely

A nice, quick fix.

Related Articles, References, Credits, or External Links

Enable RDP via Group Policy

Remote Desktop Services – Securing By Group Policy

 

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Adsense Alternative? https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001746 https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001746#comments Thu, 08 Apr 2021 12:28:13 +0000 https://www.petenetlive.com/?p=16613 KB ID 0001746 Way back in 2004 when PeteNetLive started, I didn’t even consider monetisation of the site, it was simply a place for me to store my personal scribblings about problems I’d faced in support. But as it grew and it had to move from a second hand PC under my desk, to a […]

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KB ID 0001746

Way back in 2004 when PeteNetLive started, I didn’t even consider monetisation of the site, it was simply a place for me to store my personal scribblings about problems I’d faced in support. But as it grew and it had to move from a second hand PC under my desk, to a dedicated server, then a rented VPS. The cost began to raise. 

Back then there were a few ‘ad agencies’ but unless you were getting a LOT of traffic, they would not even let you though the door, but ANYONE could use Adsense, it was (and still is) the Advertising platform that Google provide.

Adsense

How does Adsense Work: Simply you put some code in your web pages, then decide what ‘size’ you want those ads to be, you place the provided code where you want the ads to appear. Then once they’ve generated enough income (clicks) Google will send you the calculated profit for those.

Have we ever used any other Ad ‘Providers’? Yes, we’ve advertised directly for Vendors (Veeam was a great partner for many years, and it was only because I felt we ‘outgrew’ the relationship that we discontinued it this year). We also use ‘BuySellAds‘ who are also an alternative but take a larger slice of revenue for themselves and getting your money out of them is a manual process, that can take a few days. We have used MediaNet who just seemed to resell Adsense, and take a middleman cut, or put video adverts in, that adversely affected my site speed and performance.

Why Look at an to Adsense Alternative?

Well for me there were two reasons. My web traffic has gone up dramatically, but my income from the site hasn’t got up at the same speed, so I can only deduce Google are taking larger and larger slices, and doing not a great deal more to justify that commission. And secondly they are effectively the worlds biggest ad agency and they cant even sort out ad code compliance without expecting me to fix it for them. (If they’ve fixed that in the interim great, but it was the straw that broke the camels back for me.)

Newor Media (The best Adsense Alternative)

In Autumn of 2020, I got an email from Newor Media, asking if I’d be interested in using them, I get a massive amount of emails from ad networks, SEO experts, people wanting consultancy, etc. Ninety Nine percent of them just get ‘speed read’ and deleted, and so did the one from Newor Media, but they politely followed up and I replied. 

Why Use Newor Media?

Well they differ from other ad networks, insofar as they exist to get the best revenue for your ad space. They do this by auctioning ad units to potential advertisers, (including Adsense) and other advertisers who are not using Adsense/Adwords. Plus when I have a query or a problem I can email a ‘person’ who responds and is helpful, (Kudos to Katie!), and can escalate things, and get support directly. If you use Adsense your only helpline is usually ‘Other users of Adsense’ which is frustratingly terrible! So I agreed to give them a trial run.

Whats Involved / How Difficult Is It To Setup?

To be accepted, you need to meet certain traffic levels (those being, 30k unique users per month, with the large majority of those being English speaking e.g. en-us, en-gb etc). Once accepted they sent you an Insertion Order (If you’ve hosted ads with other companies this will be routine,) for the uninitiated its the legal agreement between you the site host and the supplier (Newor) so READ IT, then sign, date, and return it).

From there on, it’s pretty much the same as for Adsense, you add some code you your sites HEAD section, and they (Newor Media) will send you a small code ‘snippet’ to post into where you want the Ad to appear. (In my case thats a mixture of WordPress’Widgets’, and for the main content wherever I tell ‘Ad Inserter’ to put them! You will also need to maintain an ads.txt file on the root of your website (this is simply a text file that periodically you have to update (copy and paste) some text into).

How Much More Than Adsense Will You Make?

The 64 thousand dollar question 🙂 Well Adsense rules dictate you are not allowed to disclose what you are earning, so I can’t give you a direct comparison BUT what I can do, is demonstrate how much more you would be making with Newor Media.

Newor Media and Adsense

The graph above shows a comparison of  BLUE Newor Media (Oct 20 to Mar 21) and GREY Adsense (Oct 19 to Mar 20). Bear in mind my YouTube earnings are included in the Adsense figures also!

Adsense Alternative: OK I’m sold, Where Do I Sign Up?

Providing you meet the 30k unique visitors a month (primarily English speaking) threshold. Note:   You can get this information from Google Analytics: (Audience > Active Users > 28 Day Active Users) and (Audience > Geo > Language). Then you can apply (Click the link below and tell them PeteNetLive sent you!)

Newor Media

Related Articles, References, Credits, or External Links

NA

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FortiClient: Unlicensed VPN access is available until.. https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001745 https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001745#respond Tue, 06 Apr 2021 10:26:24 +0000 https://www.petenetlive.com/?p=16602 KB ID 0001745 Problem I got an email from a client I deployed SSL VPN for, (a couple of weeks ago), one of his users was seeing this;   Unlicensed VPN access is available until {Date} {Time} Solution: Unlicensed VPN access is available until… At first I was confused, unlike other vendors SSL VPN is […]

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KB ID 0001745

Problem

I got an email from a client I deployed SSL VPN for, (a couple of weeks ago), one of his users was seeing this;

 Fotigate Unlicensed client

Unlicensed VPN access is available until {Date} {Time}

Solution: Unlicensed VPN access is available until…

At first I was confused, unlike other vendors SSL VPN is not a licensed requirement? As it turns out in my instructions, I’d written ‘Download the Forticliet” when I should have said ‘scroll to the bottom and download the ‘FortiClient VPN’ version’.

Fotigate Client FortiCLient VPN only client

That will teach me!

Related Articles, References, Credits, or External Links

NA

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A Pub? In the Garden? https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001744 https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001744#comments Thu, 01 Apr 2021 09:39:09 +0000 https://www.petenetlive.com/?p=16573 KB ID 0001744 Garden Pub During lockdown in 2020 I decided that seeing as I could not go to the pub, it would be a better idea to have one of my own. I’m not a builder, but being an ex Royal Engineer I’ve got enough know how to turn my hands to most things. […]

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KB ID 0001744

Garden Pub

During lockdown in 2020 I decided that seeing as I could not go to the pub, it would be a better idea to have one of my own. I’m not a builder, but being an ex Royal Engineer I’ve got enough know how to turn my hands to most things. (Disclaimer: If you’re going to do you own electrics, get it checked by an electrician!)

Laminate and Skirting (update 19th Apr 2021

How Do I Get Internet to My Pub? (update 26th Apr 2021)

What to Buy?

Well you are faced with two choices, fabricate you own, or buy a ‘pre-built’ flat packed building (probably sold as a ‘summer house’ or ‘garden room’). I had a budget for the building of about 2-2.5k and did a lot of looking online and eventually settled on a 16’x10′ Summer house from ‘Nordic Timber Buildings’ the base building was about 1.6k but by the time I’d added a 4′ canopy and upgraded the roof felt it was just shy of 2k. The problem was that (in Jun/Jul of 2020) I could not get one delivered and built before NOVEMBER! 

Prep Work (Footing)

I knew I needed something to stand it on, either a concrete pad (ideally) or I looked at plastic bases you filled with stones, or using slabs etc. I’ve done plenty of concreting in the past so that was the route I was looking at, but getting ready mixed concrete to my back garden would have been a pain. Luckily my neighbour was having a path put in his back garden, and after a quick discussion, it was arranged that he would put me down a 16’x10′ concrete pad for 1k. Now I could have done it cheaper, but 1) he’s got all the gear 2) Knows the contacts 3) Will do it much quicker than me 4) That would take me probably about 3-4 weekends  to sort out myself. 5) Another lump of concrete needed removing, and it saved me hiring a breaker. Finally he agreed to do another 6’x4′ pad on the other side of the garden to put my new garden shed on, for no extra charge (sold!)

So all I needed to do was clear all the trees and branches out of the way.

Garden pub baseSummer House Base

The base is sat on plate compacted material that looks a lot like Dolomite (but isn’t) and it compresses rock hard (I was told it’s made from reclaimed stone and concrete).

The guy picked up the concrete as a ‘semi-wet’ mix on his flatbed, then he (and another) wheelbarrowed it to the formwork, they did it in two ‘pours’ as you can see in the photo above.

Wait

As I said above I now had to wait until November 30th 2020. The firm were great (Nordic Timber Buildings). On the day they turned up it was tipping down with rain and their route from truck to concrete pad, (down the side of my house and round other outbuildings was ‘challenging’ but credit to them they were outside my house at about 08:00 and finished by lunchtime).

Summer House

 

Verdict: As I’m writing this I’m a few months down the line, so I’ve got a few more ‘opinions’. On the whole I’m satisfied, the company were great, communication was spot on, the assemblers were great, and it does exactly as it says on the tin.

Minor Gripes:

  1. Whatever they used to cut the exterior cladding at their factory was probably not as sharp as it should have been, (the edging particularly round the windows is a bit ‘ragged’. I can sort this out in time  with a Stanley knife or a chisel so I can let that go.
  2. The door hinges are terrible! One practically had no galvanisation on it at all and by January was brown with rust. I’m planing to replace the doors (long term), so that’s not the end of the world.
  3. The two front doors are not terribly well fitted to be honest, I’ve got them screwed shut presently (there’s a door on the side). In the long term I’ll replace them, but they are hard to secure (i.e fit a decent hasp and staple, or some bolts).
  4. There are a couple of ‘Knot Holes’ I’d have liked to have seen filled, but for what I paid, I can go to B&Q and get some wood filler.

Summer House Pub

 

Sorting Out The Interior

Well the building was soaking to start with, it was probably stored outdoors at the factory, and had been transported in the rain, I ran the dehumidifier in there for a few days to try and get it dried out a little.

Forums / Facebook Groups and ‘Experts’

I’ve never had to insulate a wooden building before, so I joined a few groups read a few posts and asked some questions. What I learned was that unfortunately the world is full of ‘Experts’ and if you don’t do things exactly the same way they’ve done them you’re a negligent idiot, (or its all going to go wrong).

I’m not an expert (not even close) I just sponged in as much information as I could, and made a decision on what I was going to do. Then got cracking.

Moisture Barrier

Briefly, a moisture barrier is a membrane, (usually a tight woven plastic fabric) that is used to ‘wrap’ buildings. You will also see it ‘in modern buildings’ under roof tiles. It’s designed to allow water vapour to pass though it outwards and stop water coming inwards. (If you’ve ever worn GoreTex clothing you get the idea). 

Q. Did you wrap the outside of your building?

A. No? I get asked this a lot. If you build a timber framed building then you wrap the ‘frame’ in a membrane, and then you clad the outside of that. For me to do the same I’d have to disassemble the entire building remove all the upright batons from the external cladding, cover the cladding in membrane and rebuild the building again? I’m not going to do that, because that’s a monumental waste of time and effort?

So I covered the ‘inside’ of my building with membrane, completely like so;

Summer House Vapour permeable Membrane

Q.What did you use?

A. Protect TF200 2.7m x 100m Roll (approx £165)

Q. How did you fix it to the walls?

A. It’s stapled, if you can get galvanised or stainless staples use those (I didn’t, I used cheap steel ones – yes they will probably rust, but they will be buried in the wall cavity and the PIR (Insulation) will keep it in place anyway).

Q. Why is it blue?

A. I’ve not got a clue, I wanted it in 2.7m widths so I didn’t have to cut it so much, and the blue was the first one I saw.

Q: Did you leave and Vents/Gaps?

A: Yes across the top of each section it’s vented to the outside to allow air flow and potentially get rid of any condensation from inside the walls after I’ve finished.

Garden Pub: Insulation

Depending on your budget, you have probably three choices, Rockwool (like the stuff that’s in your loft), PIR (Polyisocyanurate) boards, or a combination of foil/bubblewrap. I like the idea of Rockwool because it also deadens sound, and I intend to have at least one electric guitar in here. But in the end I went for PIR.

It comes with many brand names Celotex, KingSpan etc. But they are all essentially the same. It’s a layer of foil then some foam, then another layer of foil. It comes in different thicknesses I chose 50mm.

Q: Why did you choose 50mm PIR?

A: My wall batons are 62x38mm. If I put 50mm PIR in that leaves me a 12mm cavity between the PIR and the inside of the interior walls.

Q: How much was it?

A: £280 for the PIR, then you need some foil tape (I recommend you get this from Screwfix and buy the 100mm stuff it’s miles better!)

It comes in 2.4×1.2m sheets (or 6×4 in old money) The best price I found was insulation4less but BEWARE they sting you with a delivery charge. So order it all at once, and make sure you get the quantity right. Note: Later on I’ll be doing the floor so I made the mistake of ordering twice!

Installation

Put your Stanley knife away! the best way to cut this stuff is with a good old fashioned hand saw, get a decent straight edge, and always cut it 2mm bigger than you actually need it. If you can, cut it outside! The dust is terrible, it’s not harmful, but it gets in your throat, so do like I didn’t, and wear a mask!

Q: How do I know how much I need?

A: I measured each piece I needed in the building, then sat and drew a page of rectangles (PIR boards) and worked out how to use the LEAST amount of boards.

Garden pub insulation.

Q: How do you stop it falling out of the roof and walls?

A: The more you work with it, the better you will be at cutting it correctly, by the time you finish, everything will be a snug friction fit, so that wont be a problem it will just stay there. But if you cut a little too short, get some cheap plastic headed push pins from the stationary shop they will hold it there until you need to tape it later.

Summer House PIR

Vapour Barrier

Why? If you are in a warm outbuilding and it’s cold outside, then water vapour in the air is going to form in there and you will get condensation usually on the coldest surface, (the inside face of your outside wall/cladding.) To stop that happening you need a barrier (preferably on a well ventilated air void) to protect from a build up of moisture in the walls.

You can either put up a stand alone vapour membrane (basically a decent sheet of polythene, though there are specific building membranes you can use). Or if you’ve used PIR (like I did) you can ‘Tape’ all the joints with moisture proof tape. Which is the same tape that you use to join pieces of PIR. 

Q: What Tape?

A: Try not to get the tape thats got a backing you need to peel off, if you have nails like mine it’s a pain in the backside. I used 100mmx75m Diall insulation board tape from Screwfix it’s about £6 a roll. Get plenty! I used 4 rolls on the walls and roof, and I will need more when I do the floor. 

Vapur foil tape

Here you can see the roof fully taped (excuse the wires).

Summer House Taped PIR

Walls & Lining

My original plan was to use plasterboard, because it’s reasonably cheap, and I know a good plasterer. In the end I decided to clad it it with softwood tongue and groove. This is more expensive and takes a LOT longer, but I think it will look  nicer. You can of course line yours with plywood or OSB (Oriented Strand Board) old farts like me will call that chip board, but it’s a great deal stronger than chip board and is designed for use in construction, if you choose to use OSB then use OSB3 as it’s more moisture resistant.

Plasterboard Warning: I’ve seen many posts by people, who get upset when people advise to use plasterboard, because it’s porous and can get wet and degrade, there are moisture resistant (and foil backed versions). Ive not got the experience so I can comment.

I’m using 7.6mm cladding so it’s quite thin. Best advice I can give you is every few layers make sure you are level, and if you have to clad around a door or window and then ‘meet’ above it put in a vertical joint, because unless you laser level in each run they wont meet up at the same point! Unless your a master carpenter, or at least a better chippy than I am (which is not difficult 🙂 

Below: I’ve finished cladding the walls. I will also clad the roof, Im just waiting on the light fittings.

Q: How did you fix the cladding?

A: Headless nails, you can normally hide the nails in the tongue and groove, but as I was using 7.5mm cladding it was a bit too thin, so its nailed directly onto the batons.

Garden Pub – Underfloor Insulation & Vapour Barrier

This time I’m using 25mm PIR and then I’ll cover with OSB, and finally lay laminate. 

Floor Battens Insulation

In fact just covering the floor in vapour permeable membrane has raised the temperature 2-3 degrees in there, and I can see how much the wind catches it!

Q: Why 25mm PIR?

A: Because the same timber I used in the batons (62x38mm) is also used in the floor but sideways on, so I can use 25mm PIR and still have a 13mm void.

Q: Why so many sockets.

A: See Below

Here’s the first section insulated and taped, BE AWARE OSB boards are 2.44 x 1.22m (because they are still 8’x4′) So don’t start screwing batons down until you’ve put them in the correct place. Your insulation boards will be 2.4 x 1.22m.

This time I cut them outside to stop choking on dust!

Floor Insulation Summer House

 

The following shows each section of the floor construction, and one section of the OSB in place.

Floor Insulation Summer House complete

Now with the OSB down, floors ready for laminate to be laid.

OSB Floor completeOSB Floor complete

Q: What did it cost to insulate the floor?

A: OSB Qty 5 12mm 8×4 sheets was £150.00, the 25mm PIR Qty 5 sheets was £138.30, the 62 x 38mm timber was (approx) £55.00 

 

Why So Many Sockets?

No I’m not planning on planning a Ganja farm. Apart from being a bar in the garden, I also intend to to be working out here, (as I work from home). And I’ll be out here with my electric guitars.

Thats still a LARGE amount! Well yes it is, but because I’ve never done this before, I decided to find out other peoples thoughts…

Sockets How Many

Now in my home, theres a constant, every single plug socket in the house has a 5 way extension plugged into it, and some more than one. What I don’t want out there is a sea of extension sockets.

As you can see from the construction, once cladded adding additional sockets (internally) will be a ball ache. BUT the next build phase is to deck outside, If I want to put external power in, it’s simple as peas to drill out the back of an existing socket.

So for every socket I ‘think’ I need I’ve put a double socket in.

Under the Consumer unit: Theres two doubles, one for EOP ethernet feed, the other in case I need a Power Injector for the Meraki AP26 Wireless point I’ll be fitting in the roof. That leave me capacity to fit a Gigabit switch, and have a spare socket in the consumer unit cupboard

Behind the Bar: Theres three doubles: Two for Beer Fridges, two for Perfect Draft beer dispensers, One for an Ice Machine, One for an Air Fryer (Shit I’ve already ran out).

That leaves me: 21 Double sockets, that’s loads right?

TV, Amazon FireTV box (Firestick don’t cut it for me), Sound Bar, PS4, Juke Box, 1060p Projector, Line 6 Guitar Amp, Vox ToneLab Guitar Pedal, My MacBook Pro  docking station, my HP Elitebook Docking Station, External Monitor, MFD, Chargers for my work and personal phones.

That’s more than half of them gone already? And that’s  before my daughters, visitors and visitors kids want to plug all their devices in, and jump on the wireless. Also, let’s not forget this this in my garden, it’s going to be easier to plug lawn mowers, strimmers, and hedge trimmers in here as well, (without unplugging stuff)

So no, I think I’m pretty much spot on, I’ve applied the Seven P’s

Prior, Preparation, and Planning , Prevents Piss Poor Performance.

Laminate and Skirting

Well theres no shortage of articles on how to lay laminate flooring, the best tips I can offer are;

  • Mark the underside of the laminate for cutting
  • Cut the laminate upside down if using a Mitre/Cut off saw

Annoyingly I was ONE BOX SHORT!

Laminate Ran Short

The following weekend  – (and an extra box purchased), I finished off the floor and added new skirting, (and edging across the doors.)

Laminate Finished and SkirtedLaminate Finished and Skirted

Q. How long did it take

A. To be honest If I’d had all the gear, I could have finished it in a day.

Q. What did it cost?

A. £220.00 for the laminate, £30.00 for the underlay, and £45.00 for the skirting.

Q. How did you fix the skirting?

A. Evo Grip Rapid Adhesive (check this fits in your mastic gun! I had to trim the tube down).

How Do You Get Internet Into Your Pub?

I know above I said (I’m no expert) well on this subject (networking) I am an expert. I’m a qualified network engineer with many years experience. This must be one of the ‘most asked’ questions in groups and forums. These days everyone wants at least to be able to stream sports/films, or let the kids get on Facebook. Which needs a decent reliable fast Ethernet connection.

REMEMBER: If someone says ‘Do it like this‘ it usually means ‘I did it like that’, and to the average man in the street, if it works, it was successful right? Well that same average man will be kicking off when the FA cup final is buffering, Zoom calls don’t work properly, Spotify randomly stops playing music, and it’s generally slow and buggy. Below is each method of connecting your external building to you houses internet connection, and the actual results and connection speeds that I got testing each method.

To get an internet signal to your bar you essentially have two choices, Wired or Wireless. Wired is the most simple so let’s have a look at that first. You may not be using any of them but on the ‘Router/Modem/Access Point’ that your ISP provided for you there will be at least one network socket on the back of it. Sometimes (not always) they are coloured yellow.

ISP Router

You can plug in a standard Ethernet cable into one of these sockets and, (usually unless you’ve changed any router settings) plug the other end into a Computer/Laptop and get straight onto the Internet. So you can plug an ethernet cable in there and (providing the cable in long enough, run the cable into your bar/summer house and plug something onto the other end of it. Your best bet would be a wireless access point, then you can setup a new wireless network for all your pub/summer house related internet things!

I’m using all the Routers Ethernet Sockets already? Buy a cheap four or eight port Gigabit switch from eBay this will give you more ports.

Do you need special cable? To be honest normal cat6 cable probably works for most people, however it can degrade in the cold and get brittle, if you are going to bury it, then buy ‘Direct Burial’ ethernet cable instead.

Direct Burial Ethernet

What about shielded cable? Typically it’s only for stopping RF interference between network cables, the shielding does not ‘physically‘ protect the wires, (it’s just tin foil). Though you can get armoured ethernet cable that will also suffice for outdoors and burial use.

Remember: When buying cable get it pre-terminated (plug on both ends, or a socket on one end). Otherwise you will need to terminate the cable yourself, or fit an ethernet socket in the bar.

I want Internet But I Don’t Want to Run a Cable

Then you have to either go Wireless, or use Ethernet over Power (EoP) sometimes referred to as ‘Powerline’. This is where you use the existing electrical wiring circuit in your house to extend your ethernet network.  Assuming you have electrical power in your Bar/Summer house, then you plug one unit in, in the house and connect it to your router, then you plug the other unit in in your bar, and it gives you an ethernet socket where you want it.

It’s on a different circuit will it still work? Maybe! Sorry that’s a terrible answer, but the answer is NOT NO. Firstly dont buy cheap Powerline adaptors, you need to be spending between 60 and 150 (Pounds sterling) for a pair. I’ve got a pair of Devolo devices and I can get an ethernet signal like so

ISP Router <-> Ethernet Cable <-> Devolo Adaptor <-> Socket (in the House) <->Fusebox (in the garage) <-> Armoured Cable <-> Fusebox (in the shed) <-> Socket (In the Shed) <-> 130m Extension cable <-> Devolo Adaptor (in the bar).

Powerline - Connecion Pklugged In

What I will say, is depending on the distance you will suffer from attenuation (loss of signal strength) e.g. I get 6Mbps on the end of mine and I get 200Mbps at the router. So it’s good for Facebook and email etc, but playing Xbox or streaming video might not be as good.

Powerline - Connecion Speed

Disclaimer: If you are simply on a spurred electrical connection to the house your results will be MUCH MUCH better. But compare the figures above with the wireless ones below and you will see why I chose wireless.

Connect My Bar Wirelessly to the Internet

This is my preference. Before you start, the wireless you have in you house is ‘probably‘ crap, if you use the equipment that your ISP provided to you then normally that’s the case. If you want decent wireless get a decent wireless access point (MAKE SURE it supports 5Ghz). I use a Cisco Meraki MR26 My bar is 15-20m from my house and I can get 40-55% of the wireless signal from it, (download some free Wi-Fi software and take a look at your signal strength (Wi-Fi Explorer Lite I’m using below).

Wireless to Bar

Above you can see my wireless network is about 42% What does that equate to? Well that means it performs like this;

Wireless Strength to Bar

Thats more than enough for video/audio/web traffic.  But those pictures are taken from my laptop (a MacBook Pro) which has a great wireless chipset in it, other things like Amazon Firesticks and visitors phones might not be so lucky. So I’m going to take that signal and ‘rebroadcast‘ it in the bar. To do that I will get a device that will join my house wireless network, then create a ‘new’ wireless network in the bar. I use a TP-Link RE650 (about 50 quid from eBay) to do this. Look at the difference in the ‘local‘ wireless strength in the bar now;


 Wireless Bar Rebroadcast

OK the internet connection speed wont be any quicker, but the antenna on the rebroadcaster will be better than ‘most’ devices I’m going to use in here. Using the new wireless network, here’s the connection speed.

Rebroadcast WiFi Speed

Now if I want to put any wireless cameras in here for security, or smart lighting that I can control from my phone for example I don’t have to worry, as the signal in here is now great.

Garden Pub: Whats Next?

Next Weekend: TV mounting bracket to go up!

Related Articles, References, Credits, or External Links

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FortiGate Certificates Missing? https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001743 https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001743#respond Thu, 01 Apr 2021 09:27:44 +0000 https://www.petenetlive.com/?p=16569 KB ID 0001743 Problem Nice quick easy one today, while setting up SSL VPNs for a client I needed to import their Root CA certificate, and found  the Fortigate Certificates Missing? Usually they are under System > Certificates. But the tab was simply not there? Solution: Fortigate Certificates Missing Fortunately it was simple to fix, […]

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KB ID 0001743

Problem

Nice quick easy one today, while setting up SSL VPNs for a client I needed to import their Root CA certificate, and found  the Fortigate Certificates Missing? Usually they are under System > Certificates. But the tab was simply not there?

Solution: Fortigate Certificates Missing

Fortunately it was simple to fix, it’s a ‘feature‘ you simply need to ‘enable‘. Go to System > Feature Visibility > Enable Certificates, et voila!

Fortigate Certificates Missing

If only all my problems were that simple!

Related Articles, References, Credits, or External Links

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FortiGate Port Forwarding https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001742 https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001742#respond Tue, 30 Mar 2021 08:40:36 +0000 https://www.petenetlive.com/?p=16557 KB ID 0001742 Problem I was back on the tools again today setting up FortiGate Port Forwarding! This was for one of our partners that I have to do some remote work for, so I temporarily needed to get onto their servers. Normally I’d just SSL VPN in, (but that’s what I’m setting up!) So […]

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KB ID 0001742

Problem

I was back on the tools again today setting up FortiGate Port Forwarding! This was for one of our partners that I have to do some remote work for, so I temporarily needed to get onto their servers. Normally I’d just SSL VPN in, (but that’s what I’m setting up!) So to get onto their servers I had to setup a port forward for RDP.

WARNING: Port forwarding RDP from ALL / Any is a BAD IDEA (Cryptolocker anyone?) So if you must port forward RDP, then lock it down to a particular source IP like I’m about to do.

Fortigate Port Forwarding

The Process is;

  1. Setup a ‘Virtual IP’ (with port forward enabled)
  2. Create a ‘Virtual IP Group
  3. Allow traffic to the Virtual IP Group.

FortiGate Port Forwarding: Create a Virtual IP

Policy and Objects  >Virtual IPs > Create New > Virtual IP.

FortiGate Port Forward

Give it a sensible name > Set the interface to the outside/WAN interface > External IP set to the public IP address of the firewall* > Mapped IP address, set to the internal IP address of the server you are forwarding to > Enable ‘Port forwarding’ > Select TCP or UDP > Type in the port(s) you want to forward. Forwarding a range of ports is much easier on a FortiGate than ‘some other’ vendors! > OK.

*Note: I’m assuming if you are port forwarding you only have one public IP, (or you’ve ran out). 

Fortinet Port Forward

FortiGate Port Forwarding: Create a Virtual IP Group

From the Virtual IP menu > Create New > Virtual IP Group.

Fortigate Port Forward Virtual IP

Give the group a name > Select the outside/WAN interface > Add in the Virtual IP you created above > OK.

Fortigate Port Forward Virtual IP

FortiGate Port Forwarding: Fortigate Add an ‘Address’

If you are port forwarding something  like HTTP/HTTPS to a web server, or SMTP to a mail server you can skip this step. As per my warning above I’m restricting public access to one single public IP (mine). For most port forwarding scenarios you would set the source to ‘ALL‘.

Anyway for completeness here’s how to create an Address object. Policy & Objects > Addresses > Create New > Address.

Fortigate add external Address

Give it a recognisable name > Type=Subnet > Type the IP into the IP range box > Set the interface to outside/WAN > OK.

Fortigate add external Address

FortiGate Port Forwarding: Allow Port Forwarded Traffic

Policy and Objects > IPv4 Policy (or Firewall Policy on the newer firmware) > Create New.

Fortigate Allow Port Forwarded traffic

  • Name: Something identifiable
  • Incoming Interface: Outside / WAN
  • Source: For RDP specify the single address you created above for all other port forwarding simply use ALL instead.
  • Destination: Your Virtual IP Group
  • Schedule: Always
  • Service: RDP (or the port you are forwarding if different)
  • Allow: Accept

Click OK.

Fortigate Port Forwarding Rule

FortiGate Port Forwarding: Troubleshooting Port Forwarding

You can see what’s going on by using the packet sniffer in the firewall.

diagnose sniffer packet {interface} 'host {External IP} and port {Port Number}' 4

e.g.

diagnose sniffer packet wan 'host 234.234.234.234 and port 3389' 4

Fortigate Testing Port Forwarding with packet sniffer

Note: In the example above I’m getting no return (ACK) traffic, (because the Windows firewall was on and dropping the traffic!) I diagnosed that by attempting to ping the server from the firewall (execute ping {internal IP address}) and failing to see a response!

Related Articles, References, Credits, or External Links

Fortigate: One to One (Static NAT)

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macOS – SSH Error ‘No Matching Exchange Method Found’ https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001245 https://www.petenetlive.com/kb/article/0001245#comments Wed, 24 Mar 2021 12:43:21 +0000 http://www.petenetlive.com/?p=6933 KB ID 0001245  Problem Note Certified working all the way up to macOS Big Sur version 11.2.3 I thought my RoyalTSX had broken today, I upgraded it a couple of weeks ago, and I upgraded to macOS Catalina 10.15 the other day. After this, all my SSH sessions refused to connect with this error;   […]

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KB ID 0001245 

Problem

Note Certified working all the way up to macOS Big Sur version 11.2.3

I thought my RoyalTSX had broken today, I upgraded it a couple of weeks ago, and I upgraded to macOS Catalina 10.15 the other day. After this, all my SSH sessions refused to connect with this error;

Mac SSH Error no matching key exchange

 

Unable to negotiate with x.x.x.x port 22: no matching key exchange found. Their offer diffie-hellman-group1-sha1

Note: You may also see the following error;

Mac SSH error No Matching Cipher found

Unable to negotiate with x.x.x.x port 22: no matching cipher found. Their offer: aes128-cbc,3des-cbc,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc

Update: 10/04/20: With newer equipment you may see the following error;

Unable to negotiate with x.x.x.x port 22: no matching MAC found Their offer: hmac-sha2-256

Mac SSH Error – Fix

This is not Apple’s fault, it’s OpenSSH version 7. SHA1 is weak, so support for it has been removed. Which is fine, but all my clients Cisco Firewalls/Routers/Switches are probably all using  RSA/SHA1. So until they re all updated I’m going to need to re-enable SHA1.

Open a terminal windows and execute the following;

sudo nano /etc/ssh/ssh_config
ENTER YOUR PASSWORD

Locate the line ‘ #   MACs hmac-md5,hmac-sha1,hmac-sha2-256,umac-64@openssh.com,hmac-ripemd160′ and remove the Hash/Pound sight from the beginning, and add the extra hashing algorithm that I’ve shown above in red. 

Locate the line ‘ #   Ciphers aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,aes128-cbc,3des-cbc’ and remove the Hash/Pound sight from the beginning.

Then paste the following on the end;

HostkeyAlgorithms ssh-dss,ssh-rsa

KexAlgorithms +diffie-hellman-group1-sha1

Like so;

Mac SSH Error – Quitting Nano

To quit nano, use the Ctrl-X key combination. because you are working on has been modified since the last time you saved it, you will be prompted to save the file first. Type y to save the file.

Theres no reason to reboot, it should work straight away.

But Wait – Theres More!

This is going to happen every time you upgrade your mac, I’ve started taking a backup of the ssh_config file, then I can just restore it back again, like so;

Backup macOS SSH Settings & Ciphers

sudo cp /etc/ssh/ssh_config /etc/ssh/ssh_config.bak

Backup-Mac-SSH -Settings

Restore macOS SSH Settings & Ciphers

sudo rm /etc/ssh/ssh_config
sudo mv /etc/ssh/ssh_config.bak /etc/ssh/ssh_config
sudo cp /etc/ssh/ssh_config /etc/ssh/ssh_config.bak

Restore-Mac-SSH -Settings

 

Related Articles, References, Credits, or External Links

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